Monthly Archives: April 2016

Day 91 (4q21.1-4q21.3): a DNA helicase

DNA_replication_en.svghttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helicase#/media/File:DNA_replication_en.svg

Day 91 has 36 protein-coding genes (browser view) including the gene HELQ (helicase, POLQ-like).

HELQ is part of the helicase complex that unwinds DNA so that it can be copied.

Click here to see all 8646116 letters of Day 91 with HELQ underlined.

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Day 92 (4q21.3-4q22.3): DSPP, ingredients for teeth

Blausen_0863_ToothAnatomy_02https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dentin#/media/File:Blausen_0863_ToothAnatomy_02.png

Day 92 has 36 protein-coding genes (browser view) including DSPP, encoding the most acidic human protein, dentin sialophosphoprotein.

DSPP is cleaved to create two proteins that are the main components of dentin in teeth. Interestingly, mutations are associated with some forms of deafness.

Click here to see all 8646117 letters of Day 92 with DSPP underlined.

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Day 93 (4q22.3-4q24): an Asian innovation in alcohol dehydrogenase

Satohttp://www.khiewchanta.com/archives/drinks/isaan-rice-wine-sato-1.html

Day 93 has 37 protein-coding genes (browser view) including several genes that make alcohol dehydrogenases, including ADH1B.

A variant in AHD1B, rs1229984 (H48R) is one of the unusual variants that is highly differentiated between populations: it is present in almost all people of Asian descent and is rare in others. It decreases alcohol clearance in the liver and is thought to have evolved recently along with rice cultivation, possibly as a defense against alcoholism. As expected, people with the mutation have a lower risk of oral/throat cancers.

Click here to see all 8646116 letters of Day 93 with the H48R mutation flashing.

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Day 94 (4q24-4q25): epidermal growth factor

epidermal-growth-factor-EGF-face-care-acne-scar-removal-cream-Acne-Spots-skin-care-treatment-whitening

Day 94 has 35 protein-coding genes (browser view) including the gene encoding epidermal growth factor (EGF).

In 1963, Stanley Cohen discovered EGF by experimenting on mouse salivary glands after it was found that some substance in the salivary extract caused mouse pups to develop and open their eyes faster. He and Rita Levi-Montalcini won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1986 for their work on EGF and other growth factors.

EGF is marketed as a skin care product.

Click here to see all 8646116 letters of Day 94 with EGF underlined.

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Day 95 (4q25-4q27): myozenin-2

Capture2https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/Hypertrophic_obstructive_cardiomyopathy.png

Day 95 has 24 protein-coding genes (browser view) including the gene MYOZ2 (myozenin-2).

Myozenin-2 works against the processes that lead to hypertrophy in the heart, a common cause of sudden cardiac death.

Click here to see all 8646116 letters of Day 95 with MYOZ2 underlined.

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Day 96 (4q27-4q28.2): KIAA1109 / tweek

Tweek_Tweakhttp://de.southpark.wikia.com/wiki/Tweek_Tweak

Day 96 has 31 protein-coding genes (browser view), including KIAA1109, known in fly as tweek.

KIAA1109 is not well studied in human, but has been studied in fly. The fly version is named tweek:

“tweek mutants further sparked our interest as rare homozygous flies survive to adulthood. These flies are unable to walk or stand upright for long periods, and exhibit seizures, suggestive of severe neurological defects. Based on the adult behavior of the mutants we named the gene “tweek” as it reminded us of the cartoon character “Tweek” from the TV series “Southpark”.”

Click here to see all 8646116 letters of Day 95 with KIAA1109  underlined.

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Day 97 (4q28.2-4q28.3): a gene desert; PCDH10

504px-Adherens_Junctions_structural_proteins.svghttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadherin#/media/File:Adherens_Junctions_structural_proteins.svg

Day 97 is a desert with only 4 protein-coding genes (browser view). One is PCDH10, protocadherin-10.

Cadherins are proteins that help cells stick to each other, and PCDH10 appears to work in the brain.

Click here to see all 8646116 letters of Day 97, with PCDH10 underlined.

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Day 98 (4q28.3-4q31.22): the glycophorin genes

Protein_GYPA_PDB_1afohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GYPA#/media/File:Protein_GYPA_PDB_1afo.png

Day 98 has 38 protein-coding genes (browser view) including GYPA (glycophorin A), GYPB, and GYPC, the genes of the MNS blood system.

The MNS blood group was the first blood group discovered after the classical ABO types, in 1927 (the GYPA gene was discovered in 1981).

Click here to see all 8646116 letters of Day 98 with GYPA underlined.

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Day 99 (4q31.22-4q32.1): the string that ties together clots

blood_clothttp://www.emedicinehealth.com/blood_clots/article_em.htm

 

Day 99 has 33 protein-coding genes (browser view), including FGA, FGB, and FGG, the genes for fibrinogen.

Fibrinogen reacts with thrombin to produce fibrin, the mesh of fibers that forms blood clots.

Click here to see all 8646116 letters of Day 99 with FGA underlined.

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Day 100 (4q32.1-4q32.3): GRIA1, a crucial bit of A-to-I editing

 

F1.largehttp://www.biochemsoctrans.org/content/37/6/1399

 

Day 100 has 24 protein-coding genes (browser view) including the gene for GRIA2 (glutamate receptor 2), a neurotransmitter.

GRIA2 is an interesting case of RNA editing: some of the adenosine (A) bases in the mRNA for GRIA2 are chemically modified by an enzyme to become inosine (I) – which makes the ribosome read them as a G instead of an A. This editing is decreased in the neurons of ALS patients, which may be one of the mechanisms of neuron death.

Click here to see all 8646116 letters of Day 100 with GRIA2 underlined.

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