Monthly Archives: August 2016

Day 213 (9q33.2-9q34.11): a lipocalin that starves bacteria of iron

brussels08http://www.dubman.com/spooky/me/default.asp?show=1105

Day 213 has 123 protein-coding genes (browser view) including LCN2 (lipocalin 2).

LCN2 is secreted when bacteria are detected, and it binds to iron to help limit bacterial growth.

Click here to see all 8649670 letters of Day 213 with LCN2 underlined.

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Day 214 (9q34.11-9q34.3): the ABO blood type locus

dscn1427https://museumgeographies.wordpress.com/category/art/contemporary-art-art/

“Blood Type” by Lizette Chirimme (from South Africa), displayed as part of Nando’s Art Collection at the 1:54 Art Fair in London. Photo: Carol Dixon

Day 214 has 158 protein-coding genes (browser view) including ABO (ABO, alpha 1-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase and alpha 1-3-galactosyltransferase).

ABO is the gene that determines your main blood type – there are three main alleles for the gene (A, B, and O). The ABO system was discovered in 1900, but the sequence differences between the three alleles weren’t worked out until 1990.

There is no evidence that blood types influence nutrition or personality.

Click here to see all 8649670 letters of Day 214 with ABO underlined (the reference genome has the O allele).

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Day 215 (11pter-11p15.4): the sickle cell mutation

sickle-cellhttps://www.thinglink.com/scene/628958479796666368

Day 215, the beginning of Chromosome 11, has 215 protein-coding genes (browser view), including the gene HBB (hemoglobin subunit beta).

A mutation in HBB causes sickle cell anemia but also protects against malaria, explaining its persistence in sub-Saharan Africa.

Click here to see all 8442913 letters of Day 215 with rs334, the HbS mutation, flashing.

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Day 216 (11p15.4-11p15.2): calcitonin and the discovery of splicing

figure_29_41https://blogs.glowscotland.org.uk/gc/hyndsecbiohu1/one-gene-many-proteins/

Day 216 has 52 protein-coding genes (browser view) including CALCA (calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha).

The CALCA gene was the human gene where alternative splicing was first observed, in 1981. The same gene makes two different proteins: calcitonin, a thyroid hormone, and CGRP, a pain-related peptide.

Click here to see all 8442914 letters of Day 216 with CALCA underlined.

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Day 217 (11p15.2-11p14.3): an ear protein

inner-ear-iheartgutshttp://iheartguts.com/blogs/meet-the-guts/14652313-inner-ear-now-hear-this

Day 217 has 50 protein-coding genes (browser view) including OTOG (otogelin).

Otogelin was discovered in 1997 and is a secretion only expressed in the inner ear.

Click here to see all 8442914 letters of Day 217 with OTOG underlined.

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Day 218 (11p14.3-11p13): PAX6, an ancient eye gene

eyeevo-500x631http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2012/04/25/modular-gene-networks-as-agent/

Day 218 has 35 protein-coding genes (browser view) including PAX6.

The PAX6 controls the creation of eyes in all different kinds of animals, even though those eyes look very different – in humans, flies, squid, and worms.

Click here to see all 8442914 letters of Day 218 with PAX6 underlined.

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Day 219 (11p13-11p12): the Hermes antigen

chronosconquest_hermes_biboun_800http://www.biboun.com/chronos-conquest-20-finance/

Day 219 has 23 protein-coding genes (browser view) including CD44, also known as the Hermes antigen.

CD44 is one of the molecules on the surface of white blood cells that lets them home – crawl their way from the bloodstream into the bone marrow.

Click here to see all 8442914 letters of Day 219 with CD44 underlined.

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Day 220 (11p12-11p11.12): part of the nuclear pore

nuclear-pore-complexhttp://www.biologyexams4u.com/2012/06/nucleus-ultra-structure.html#.WGAMpKIrKuU

Day 220 has 69 protein-coding genes (browser view) including NUP160 (nucleoporin 160 kDa).

NUP160 encodes part of the huge nuclear pore complex, through which mRNAs, proteins, and other large molecules have to pass to get into and out of the nucleus.

Click here to see all 8442913 letters of Day 220 with NUP160 underlined.

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Day 221 (11p11.12-11q12.1): a read-through transcript

cgdef_1https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conjoined_gene

Day 221 has 95 protein-coding genes (browser view) and has an interesting case of a “read-through” or “conjoined” gene: ZFP91-CNTF.

These genes individually are transcribed and encode functional proteins, but sometimes get transcribed as a single RNA together – the polymerase keeps going past the end of ZFP91 and reads into CNTF, but then stops before the end. This transcript gets destroyed by the NMD pathway before it is ever read.

Click here to see all 8442914 letters of Day 221 with ZFP91-CNTF underlined.

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Day 222 (11q12.1-11q13.2): a gene that evolved fast in Greenland

screen-shot-2016-12-25-at-1-54-26-pmhttps://www.ucl.ac.uk/mace-lab/publications/articles/2015/fumagalli-2015

Day 222 has 276 protein-coding genes (browser view) including FADS2 (fatty acid desaturase 2).

The FADS2 gene is involved in fat metabolism, and has mutations that are strongly associated with weight around the world. These mutations are at very different frequencies in Greenland, indicating that FADS2 was a recent targets of natural selection, probably as a result of Greenlanders’ diet.

Click here to see all 8442914 letters of Day 222 with the rs74771917 mutation flashing.

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