Monthly Archives: September 2016

Day 244 (10q25.1-10q25.3): a ladybird gene

urlhttps://www.activityvillage.co.uk/ladybirds

Day 244 has 41 protein-coding genes (browser view) including LBX1 (ladybird homeobox 1).

Like Day 25 (1q32.1-1q41): PROX1, determining the fate of cells in the eye, LBX1 is a homeotic gene, determining body patterning. It was discovered in fly, and named for the spotted pattern of gene expression seen during development. In mice (and probably in humans) it is required for limb muscles to develop.

Click here to see all 8362339 letters of Day 244 with LBX1 underlined.

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Day 245 (10q25.3-10q26.13): a shootin

tender_plant3-1

Day 245 has 56 protein-coding genes (browser view) including SHTN1 (shootin 1).

Shootin helps neurons make the decision of which end to grow dendrites – it establishes their polarity.

Click here to see all 8362339 letters of Day 245 with SHTN1 underlined.

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Day 246 (10q26.13-10qter): dedicator of cytokinesis

ivlq_useless_light_switchhttp://www.thinkgeek.com/product/ivlq/

Day 246 has 48 protein-coding genes (browser view) including DOCK1 (dedicator of cytokinesis 1).

DOCK1 is a GEF protein, which means that it flips switches on other proteins called G proteins as cells make the decision to divide or engulf other cells.

Click here to see all 8362339 letters of Day 246 with DOCK1 underlined.

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Day 247 (12pter-12p13.31): a hallmark of T cells

669x465xmedian-cd4-large_-1024x712-jpg-pagespeed-ic-x-hm5iaeqthttp://etedashboardny.org/monitoring-outcomes-median-cd4-count-at-diagnosis/

Day 247 has 109 protein-coding genes (browser view) including the gene for CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4).

CD4 is the receptor on T cells that HIV recognizes and exploits, and CD4-expressing T cells are an important indicator of HIV progression.

Click here to see all 8329706 letters of Day 247 with CD4 underlined.

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Day 248 (12p13.31-12p12.3): a cluster of bitter-sensing taste receptors

1402_the_tonguehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taste_receptor#/media/File:1402_The_Tongue.jpg

Day 248 has 103 protein-coding genes (browser view) including a cluster of bitter taste receptor genes such as TAS2R13.

The taste receptor genes were first identified only 15 years ago, and they are still not fully understood.

Click here to see all 8329707 letters of Day 248

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Day 249 (12p12.3-12p12.1): a cluster of drug transporters

f2-largehttp://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/39/11/1902

Day 249 has 29 protein-coding genes (browser view) including genes for several solute carriers like SLCO1B1 (solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1).

These genes are important in the liver and kidney, and mutations in these genes are associated with how people metabolize drugs differently – pharmacogenomics.

Click here to see all 8329707 letters of Day 249 with SLCO1B1 underlined.

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Day 250 (12p12.1-12p11.1): a potent cancer switch in KRAS

image041http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/stainskras.html

Day 250 has 44 protein-coding genes (browser view) including KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog).

KRAS is a growth-stimulating gene, so activating mutations can cause cancer. The gene’s name comes from the fact that it was discovered in a rat RNA virus that co-opts the gene to cause cancer (the virus was discovered by W.H. Kerstin in 1967 and the ras oncogene was characterized in 1982)

Click here to see all 8329707 letters of Day 250 with the G12D mutation flashing – the most common mutation in ovarian cancer.

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Day 251 (12p11.1-12q12): a Basque Parkinson mutation

fig-1-map-of-northern-spain-published-lrrk2-substitution-frequencies-in-spain-arehttps://www.researchgate.net/figure/6294949_fig1_Fig-1-Map-of-Northern-Spain-Published-Lrrk2-substitution-frequencies-in-Spain-are

Day 251 has only 11 protein-coding genes (browser view), spanning the centromere. It includes LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) also known as dardarin.

Per the NIH Genetics Home Reference:

A mutation that replaces the amino acid arginine with the amino acid glycine at protein position 1441 (written as Arg1441Gly or R1441G) is a relatively common cause of Parkinson disease in the Basque region between France and Spain. The protein name dardarin comes from the Basque word “dardara,” which means tremor, a characteristic feature of Parkinson disease.

Click here to see all 8329706 letters of Day 251 with the R1441G mutation flashing.

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Day 252 (12q12-12q13.12): a collagen in your eye

vitreous-humor-lenshttp://anatomycorner.com/main/2016/01/12/eye-vitreous-humor/

Day 252 has 79 protein-coding genes (browser view) including COL2A1 (collagen, type II, alpha 1).

This collagen is a major component of the vitreous humor that fills your eyeball, and also your cartilage.

Click here to see all 8329707 letters of Day 252 with COL2A1 underlined.

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Day 253 (12q13.12-12q14.1): HOTAIR

pmc3098824_1476-4598-10-38-3https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3098824_1476-4598-10-38-3&req=4

Day 253 has 222 protein-coding genes (browser view), including one of the two large keratin gene clusters in the genome, and the famous noncoding RNA HOTAIR (HOX transcript antisense RNA).

HOTAIR was discovered in 2007 and was the first example of a long, non-coding RNA that regulates the transcription of genes on another chromosome. We first saw one of the four HOX clusters on Day 148 (7p15.3-7p14.3): the HOXA cluster. In this case, HOTAIR is transcribed from the HOXC cluster here on Chromosome 12, and turns down the HOXD genes on Chromosome 2.

Click here to see all 8329707 letters of Day 253 with HOTAIR underlined.

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