Monthly Archives: December 2016

Day 335 (20p11.21-20q11.21): visual system homeobox 1

http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/keratoconus.htm

Day 335 has 37 protein-coding genes (browser view) including VSX1 (visual system homeobox 1).

VSX1 is a homeobox gene involved in eye development. Mutations cause keratoconus.

Click here to see all 8055521 letters of Day 335 with VSX1 underlined.

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Day 336 (20q11.21-20q12): the ITCH gene

http://simpsons.wikia.com/wiki/Itchy

Day 336 has 102 protein-coding genes (browser view) including ITCH (itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase).

ITCH is a ubiquitin ligase which marks proteins for destruction. It was discovered in mouse in 1998 and called itchy because of a fatal set of immune symptoms when the gene is mutated, including scarring from constant itching.

Click here to see all 8055520 letters of Day 336 with ITCH underlined.

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Day 337 (20q12-20q13.13): TOP1, relieving the tension in DNA

http://gifsoup.com/view/5235626/topoisomerase-i-mechanism-of-action.html

Day 337 has 91 protein-coding genes (browser view) including TOP1 (topoisomerase 1).

Topoisomerase enzymes are critical to all life, so they are billions of years old. They relieve over-winding of DNA during replication. Attacking this enzyme in bacteria or cancer cells is an effective way to kill them.

Click here to see all 8055521 letters of Day 337 with TOP1 underlined.

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Day 338 (20q13.13-20q13.2): an aurora kinase

http://cancergrace.org/wp-content/uploads/2007/03/aurora-kinase-intro-pictures.jpg

Day 338 has 40 protein-coding genes (browser view) including AURKA (aurora A kinase).

The aurora kinase genes were discovered in frog eggs, and are important to cell division, making them attractive cancer drug targets. They are named for the smear of colors seen under the microscope in cytogenetic studies when dyed chromosomes divide improperly.

Click here to see all 8055521 letters of Day 338

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Day 339 (20q13.2-20q13.33): a spot of highly-accelerated RNA evolution

Day 339 has 102 protein-coding genes (browser view), and also the noncoding regions HAR1A and HAR1B (highly accelerated region 1A and 1B).

Like Day 58 (2q37.1-2qter): HACNS1, the strongest noncoding innovation in the human genome, this is a human-accelerated region. It overlaps a long noncoding RNA expressed in brain.

Click here to see all 8055521 letters of Day 339 with HAR1A underlined.

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Day 340 (19pter-19p13.2): a FGF gene, controlling limb length

http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2009/07/16/the-copied-gene-that-gave-dachshunds-and-corgis-their-short-legs/

Day 340 has 255 protein-coding genes (browser view) including FGF22.

Ed Yong has written a wonderful explanation of how FGF genes are responsible for the short legs of corgis and dachshunds.

Click here to see all 8373945 letters of Day 340 with FGF22 underlined.

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Day 341 (19p13.2-19p13.11): mucin 16, the second-longest protein

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CA-125#/media/File:The_Structure_of_MUC16.jpeg

Day 341 has 246 protein-coding genes (browser view) including MUC16 (mucin 16).

Mucin 16 is the second-longest protein in the human genome, after Day 51 (2q31.1-2q32.1): titin, the largest protein. It can be used to predict prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer.

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Day 342 (19p13.11-19p11): Chromosome 19 is the most gene-dense

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_chromosome_19_from_Gene_Gateway_-_no_label.png#/media/File:Human_chromosome_19_from_Gene_Gateway_-_with_label.png

Day 342 has 134 protein-coding genes (browser view).

We are now in Chromosome 19, which is exceptionally gene-dense – twice the genome avereage!

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Day 343 (19p11-19q13.11): a bZIP transcription factor

1nwqhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CEBPA#/media/File:1nwq.png

Day 343 has 27 protein-coding genes (browser view) including CEBPA (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha).

CEBPA is a transcription factor, a protein that binds to DNA to control gene transcription. Specifically, it is a bZIP factor, named for the zipper-like structure that it uses to grab DNA.

Click here to see all 8373945 letters of Day 343 with CEBPA underlined.

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Day 344 (19q13.11-19q13.2): biliverdin reductase, turning bruises yellow

http://polycount.com/discussion/151280/swamp-zombie-wip-critiques-welcome

Day 344 has 229 protein-coding genes (browser view) including BLVRB (biliverdin reductase 2).

BLVRB converts biliverdin to bilirubin – a step that is occurring when a bruise turns from green to yellow.

Click here to see all 8373945 letters of Day 344 with BLVRB underlined.

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