Day 366 (Leap Day): The mitochondrial genome

Screen Shot 2016-02-28 at 4.40.21 PMhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_mitochondrial_genetics#/media/File:Map_of_the_human_mitochondrial_genome.svg

 

Leap Day brings us to the mitochondrial genome. At 16569 base pairs, the whole thing is the size of an average gene, but packs in 37 genes, 14 of which are protein-coding (browser view). All of the protein-coding genes except one (humanin) make proteins involved in the electron transport chain that happens in the mitochondria.

Your mitochondrial genome looks much more like a bacterial genome than an animal genome: it is circular and has tightly-packed and sometimes-overlapping genes. This is strong evidence for the endosymbiotic theory.

Click here to see the full sequence of the mitochondrial genome (annotations omitted.)

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